MLA Referencing Style


Created: 25th July 2011




MLA Referencing Style What is it?

Academic writing requires the author to support their arguments with reference to other published work or experimental results/findings. A reference system will perform three essential tasks:

  •   Enable you to acknowledge other authors ideas (avoid plagiarism).

  •   Enable a reader to quickly locate the source of the material you refer to so they

    can consult it if they wish.

  •   Indicate to the reader the scope and depth of your research.

    The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is a widely used referencing system to help you achieve these objectives.

    How do I use the Style?

    The MLA system involves two tasks:
     How you compile a list of reference sources at the end of your text (reference list).

     How you refer to other authors in the body of your text (in text citation).
    Below is a list of some common citation types along with examples of how they are laid

    out within the MLA Style guidelines.

    Notation guide
    REF = reference list ITC = in text citation

    Book with one author

    REF: Author last name, First name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

    Example: McDonagh, Sean. Why are we Deaf to the Cry of the Earth. Dublin: Veritas, 2001.



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ITC:

 (Author Last name page)  (Page no)

Example

 In another study (McDonagh 80)....  McDonagh has discussed (80)....

Book with two or three authors

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: McLean, Bethany and Peter Elkind. The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron. New York: Portfolio, 2004.

ITC:

 (Author(s) last name and last author last name page)  (Page no)

Example

 Others highlight a different factor (McLean and Elkind 122)....  Bethany and McLean (122) highlight....

Book with more than three authors

REF: First Author Last name, First name et al. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: McGeady, Thomas et al. Veterinary Embryology. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006. ITC:

 (First author’s last name et al. page no)  (Page no)



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Example

 It has been suggested (McGeady et al. 155)....  McGeady (155) suggests....

Book with a corporate author

REF: Organisation name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. Pedigree Sheep Breed Improvement Programme: Performance Results for Lambs Summer 2000. Cavan: Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 2000.

ITC:

 (Organisation name Page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Figures released (Department of Agriculture 25) at the time....  Figures from the Department of Agriculture (25)....

Book with an editor

REF: Editors(s) last name, First name and last editors First name Last name. Ed(s). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Booth, David. Ed. Rethinking Social Development: Theory, Research and Practice. Essex: Longman, 1994.

ITC:

 (Editor(s) Last name page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Another approach (Booth 55) shows....  Booth (55) argues....



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Chapter in an edited book

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. "Title of chapter.” Title of Collection. Ed. Editor(s) First name last name and last editor First name Last name. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page range.

Example: Jonson, Ben. "To the Memory of My Beloved, the Author Mr. William Shakespeare." The Norton Anthology of Poetry. Ed. Alexander Allison et al. New York: Norton, 1983. 239-40.

ITC:

 (Author(s) Last name page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Another approach (Jonson 239)....  Jonson (239) writes....

Print Journal article

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume. Issue (year): pages.

Example: Mann, Susan. "Myths of Asian Womanhood." Journal of Asian Studies. 59.1 (2000): 835-62.

ITC:

 (Author(s) Last name page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Another author (Mann 850) argues....  Mann (850) argues....



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E-journal article

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. "Title of Article." Journal title Volume. Issue (Year): Page numbers. Database. Web. Day Month Year accessed.

Example: Faris, Marc. “That Chicago Sound: Playing with (Local) Identity in Underground Rock.” Popular Music & Society 27.4 (2004): 429-454. EBSCOhost. Web. 5 April 2011.

ITC:

 (Author(s) Last name page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Exploring this topic (Faris 440)....  Faris (440) highlights the role....

Print Newspaper article

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. Article title. Newspaper title Day Month Year of publication, Page number.

Example: Gleeson, Jim. "Towards Holistic Approach to School Discipline." Irish Times 10 February 2006, p.16.

ITC:

 (Author(s) last name page no)  (Page no)

Example:

 Others (Gleeson 16) argue....  Gleeson (16) argues....



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Online Newspaper article

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. Article title. Newspaper title. Website title day Month Year of publication. Medium of publication. Day Month Year accessed.

Example: Keenan, Dan. "North Voters Go to Polls Today." Irish Times. The Irish Times 5 May 2010. Web. 5 May 2011.

ITC: (Author(s) last name)
Example: Others (Keenan) reported....

Page on a website

REF: Author(s) Last Name, First Name (if available). Name of Site. Day Month Year of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Day Month Year accessed.

Example: Harris, Robert. "Evaluating Internet Research Sources." VirtualSalt. 15 June 2008. Web. 27 April 2011.

ITC: Use first few words of the page title.
Example: According to another source (Evaluating Internet Research)....

Website

REF: Author(s) Last Name, First Name (if available). Name of Site. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), Year of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Day Month Year of access.

Example: Perry Willett . Victorian Women’s Writers Project. Indiana University, May. 2000. Web. 10 February 2006.

ITC: (Author Last name /Website name) Example: According to another source (Harris)....



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Blog

REF: Author(s) Last Name, First Name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site, Day Month Year of publication. Medium of publication. Day Month Year of access.

Example: O’Connor, John. “Global Warming and the Future.” Jane Murphy Blog, 14 January 2010. Web. 13 April 2010.

ITC: (Author(s) Last name)
Example: According to another source (O’Connor)....

Email communication

REF: Sender Last name, First name. "Subject Title of Email." Message to the author. Day Month Year email sent. Email.

Example: Scott, Graham. "Re: Information Literacy." Message to the author. 26 February 2010. Email.

ITC: (Sender Last name)
Example: Additional figures provided (Graham) prove....

Interviews

REF: Interviewee(s) Last Name, First name. Personal Interview. Day Month Year of interview.

Example: Higgins, John. Personal Interview. 7 September 2010. ITC: (Interviewee(s) Last name)
Example: Additional figures provided (Higgins) prove....

Government agency publication

REF: Organisation name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Example: Department of Health & Children, Ireland. A Vision for Change: Report of the

Expert Group on Mental Health Policy. Dublin: Stationary Office, 2006
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ITC:

 (Organisation name page no)  (Page no)

Example:

 Figures released (Department of Health & Children 25) at the time....  Figures from the Department of Health & Children (25)....

Parliamentary and legal material

REF: Jurisdiction. Series no: Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Example: Ireland. S.I. No. 139/2011: Equality, Integration, Disability and Human Rights (Transfer of Departmental Administration and Ministerial Functions) Order 2011. Dublin: The Stationery Office, 2011.

ITC: (Short form of title)
Example: Legislation introduced at the time (Equality, Integration, Disability 2011)....

EU publications

REF: EU agency name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Example: European Commission. Making Globalisation Work for Everyone. Luxembourg:

Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2003.

ITC:

 (EU agency name page no)  (Page no)

Example

 Figures released (European Commission 11) at the time....  European Commission figures (25) show....



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Conferences

REF: Author(s) last name, First name and last author’s First name Last name. “Title of paper.” Title of conference proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Pages. Format.

Example: O’Connor, John. "Towards a Greener Ireland.” Discovering Our Natural Sustainable Resources: Future Proofing, University College Dublin, 15–16 March 2009. Dublin: Irish Environmental Institute, 2009. 65 – 69. Print

ITC: (Author(s) last name)
Example: According to another source (O’Connor 68)....

Theses

REF: Author Last name, First name. “Title.” Degree statement. Degree-awarding body, Year. Format.

Example: Allen, Sean. "The Social and Moral Fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland." PhD thesis. University College Dublin, 2009. Print.

ITC:

 (Author Last name page no)  (Page no)

Example:

 As argued elsewhere (Allen 55)....  Allen (55) disagrees with this....

Audio-visual material

REF: Title. Dir. Director’s first name last name. Film studio/distributor, year. Format. Example: The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Polygram, 1995. Film.
ITC: (Title of film)



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Example: Singer’s 1995 hit (The Usual Suspects) grossed.....

EndNote is a software application that allows researchers store and manage all references in one place. It is available via Software for U and the Library runs regular introductory and advanced training sessions.

  •   Users can record, store and manage references in hundreds of citation styles.

  •   Users can add references manually or search and download directly from online

    databases and library catalogues.

  •   EndNote Cite While You Write features allows users to insert citations easily and

    creates bibliographies automatically in Microsoft Word (and Apple's Pages '09 with EndNote version X2).

    More information about Library support for Endnote is available on our website1.